above: art glass bottle
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Vintage and Antique Glass Bottles featuring Apothecary Vials (1 and 2) and NZ Bottles History from The Glass Encyclopedia and Glass MuseumA short note on bottles:
Glass bottles have been made since pre-Roman times, using core-formed techniques involving wrapping a coil of molten glass around a shape made of mud and straw and other materials which could be removed from the bottle once it cooled. These bottles were very expensive and used mostly for perfumes and valuable oils.
The Romans invented glass blowing, and made it possible to produce glass bottles in large numbers. For the past two thousand years glass bottles have been used as containers for all kinds of liquids. Variations in shape have been designed for easy transportation, for aesthetic reasons, to contain pressure within the bottle, or to make the contents appear more.
Further down this page is a very interesting article on glass apothecary vials by Walt Rigling followed by another on English Apothecary Vials by David W. Barker (scroll down).
The bottle on the left is a recent art glass ornament, not intended for any practical purpose, and made in New Zealand around 1975. At the end of this page there is an article on the interesting history of glass bottle-making in New Zealand.
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Glass Apothecary Vials
by Walt Rigling
photos by Ron Saylor
Small hand blown glass medicinal bottles have been in use for nearly 2,000 years. The earliest ones were the Roman "unguentaria", sometimes called "teardrop bottles", seen on the right. These were used by the Romans for fragrant oils used in medicines, perfumes, and cooking. They were made by the thousand from the end of the first century A.D. (when glass blowing was first invented) to around 500 A.D.
The Romans were obsessively enthusiastic about perfumed oils. Medical texts by Pliny the Elder, Dioscorides, and Galen, amongst others, refer frequently to prescriptions containing imported spices such as frankincense and myrrh as well as local ones like saffron. There are many Roman texts which criticise the excess expenditure on perfumes for cosmetic and medical use, and it was one of the major drains on Roman coffers by Nero's days.
On the other hand, it was all good news for the glassmakers. They built their glassworks often in the same districts as the perfumiers, and there was a constant demand for their products throughout the Roman empire. The two vials at centre front of the picture above were the simplest to make, and most common type found during the late 1st century A.D. and the early 2nd century A.D. The skilled glass worker would blow a tiny gather of glass into a bulb, pull the neck with his tools to elongate it, and then shear the vial from the blow pipe leaving a simple flared top. The shapes become more complex in later centuries.
Glass Footed Vials of the 15th to 18th Centuries
There was a long pause in production of apothecary's vials during the "dark ages" and through medieval times. The small glass medicinal vial re-emerged in relative quantity particularly around Germany and the Baltic regions during the "Renaissance" period.
Through the 15th to 18th centuries we find the crude yet charming "footed" vials seen here and at the top of this page. They average from 8 to 10cm in height. The term "footed" refers to the small disc of glass applied to the base of these bottles, as you can see in the photograph later in this article.
The glass is usually thin and not very good quality. In the 15th and 16th centuries closure was attained with oiled parchment tied to the neck. By the 17th century cork was becoming commonplace for stoppers.
In the picture above, the examples on the left date approximately to the late 15th century and the picture shows our subjective chronology through the centuries, with 17th and 18th century examples at the rear on the right. This form of vial was in use for such a long period that dating them precisely is difficult.
The small dark specimen is a 16th century example that contained mercury, possibly for treating syphilis. This one is an early type of Murano glass from Italy and can be identified by the use of "cristallo" soda glass rather than the less successful potash glass used elsewhere. Murano glassblowers (confined to work on the island of Murano in Venice) were treated well but essentially kept prisoner until the 16th century in order to maintain a monopoly on the cristallo trade (by keeping its formula secret).
The picture on the right shows the base of several examples. The "kickup" on the base is lightly conical with a small shard of pontil glass or a tiny circular pontil ring.
The kickup has two advantages, it takes less content to fill the bottle, and also any sediment in the contents tends to get trapped around the edges of the base.
Later examples tended to be made of clearer and purer glass with flattened horizontal mouths. Earlier specimens usually have an everted or crudely folded over mouth. Market desirability is based on crudeness, patina and postulated age. Prices in 1988 range from about $75 to $150 US, but they are hard to find and values are increasing.
Globular glass bottles
The picture on the right illustrates another variation of the apothecary's vial. Note how these small bottles lack the glass disc on the base and have a much more pronounced conical kickup.
The larger broken example (back left) is a late 15th century type. The small vials range from the late 15th to early 17th centuries. Most bear a small ring-shaped tubular pontil scar.
This form tends to be smaller than the footed type and is comparatively more scarce. They are valued around the same price range as the footed vials.
The historical importance of this shape is that it was the precursor for the "onion" wine and beverage bottles that abounded from the late 17th to middle 18th centuries. These dark olive "onion" bottles became invaluable throughout Europe and England and saw extensive use and variety. Both the footed and the "pre-onion" apothecary vials share features of the long-necked "shaft and globe" wine bottles of the middle 17th century. These tiny vessels offer both a historical significance and a unique aesthetic.
Small Glass Cylinder vials of the 15th to 17th centuries
The multitude of small cylinders in this picture span the late 15th through to the 17th centuries. Considerable variation exists with this style and dating can be daunting.
The two cylinders on the left of this picture have features common to the earliest forms found in the 15th and middle 16th centuries. The centre and rightmost bottles have features used throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. Typical features are the flared mouths, crude quality, and variation in kickup depth.
Some vials tend to have bases narrower than the shoulder diameter. This was more common from the early to middle of the 17th century. Cylinders tend to cost about a half to three-quarters of the price of globular vials.
Early medicinal glass containers
The little jar on the right is a "salve pot", used to store ointments and viscous lotions. This specimen probably dates from the late 16th century.
The fragmented vessel that looks like a cup is called a "prunted beaker" from the 16th century. These are very rare early drinking vessels.
Early vials and jars can provide an affordable and attractive category of glass collecting. Prices can be high for rare colours and shapes. Roman vials were produced in such quantity and over such a long period, that they are not so rare as the later globular and cylindrical vials.
Apothecary vials sometimes show up in odd places due to their small sizes and nondescript natures. This article covers only a general sampling of the many types that exist. These handblown bottles continued to be manufactured well into the 19th century, demonstrating an ever-increasing sophistication in form and glass quality along with a commensurate drop in price.
If you are looking for examples, click apothecary glass
English Apothecary Vials
author: David W. Barker
Early English glass apothecary vials 16th - 17th century
Glass items in this article are from David W. Barker's private collection
Walt Riglings' article (above) pictured a delightful world of miniature vessels full of charm and character, mainly from Europe and including free blown forms from the Roman Empire. The introduction of glassmaking to Northern Europe through the spread of the Roman Empire started a tradition that maintained its hold both culturally and economically for over a millenium and a half, long after the demise of the Romans.
Glassmaking in the British Isles may have taken place during Roman times. It was certainly established in the weald of Kent by the 14th century, initiated by continental European glassmakers who brought with them a store of useful knowledge, ideas, and designs. Amongst this variety was the common small vial used for medicinal and other utilitarian purposes. These early vials and small bottles are extremely rare and known mainly through fragmented remains.
By the mid 16th century the forms of these vessels were stylistically moving away from continental patterns and developing characteristics that would identify them as specifically English. By the 17th century a distinctly Anglicized and diverse range of vial shapes were being produced in English glasshouses. Certain similarities remain between English and European forms, notably the basal profile and kick-up, where were often conical or dome shaped with a similar pontil scar.
Early European forms have lip and mouth profiles very similar to Roman unguentaria or balsamaria: they have a flared or everted top with an inner folding over the lip. In later European examples the lip form is clearly everted without any folding over, and this became a constant characteristic of continental vials. A distinctive trait of the lip of English vials was this nearly horizontal, flattened, flared-out disc shaped profile, like the olive green bottle above. Although there are atypical examples, most 17th century English vials have this feature. Their shapes display a wide variety whilst colour ranges from pale to dark; olive green to aqua green to blue. They are often rather crudely shaped, although some examples display extraordinary delicacy and skill in their creation.
Although hundreds of these small common purpose vials must have been made over the centuries few have survived. In this respect they are rare.
There was a practice in Britian of planting a bottle underneath the stone flags of a doorway to ward off evil or mischievous spirits. It probably contained some special ingredients for the purpose. For similar reasons, vials have been found hidden underneath hearthstones and beneath windowsills, behind old fireplaces and in crevices and niches in old buildings. This is a fortunate source of some of the bottles pictured in this collection. The others came from excavations, collected by the author over the past thirty years.
The collection represents my personal fascination for these enigmatic small vessels. They have a special place in the history of post-Medieval glassmaking, linking ancient forms from a long tradition of wood-fired furnaces, to new methods using English coal that originated in the early 17th century. In this respect they retain a sense of their truly ancient origins in the glass vessels of the Roman Empire. They compliment their larger black glass cousins: the utilitarian bottles of the 17th through the 19th centuries.
Here is a set of pictures of a selection from my collection, covering the 16th to 19th centuries.
1: Tiny crudely-formed vial in darkish aqua glass, from circa (about) 1690-1700. Height 1.625"
1: Small globular bodied vial in dark olive-green with flattened sides, forming a rather square cross-section. From about 1650; 1.375" high.
2: Exceptionally rare miniature shaft and globe form in dark aqua green glass with contents residue and original cork, from about 1650. 2.625" high.
3: Small globular bodied vial, similar to number one, but in a paler aqua green glass, from circa 1650. 1.625" high.
1: Rare Shaft and Globe form in dark aqua green glass from circa 1650. Height 2.625"
2: Rare Shaft and Globe form from about 1680 or perhaps earlier, in darkish aqua glass 3.5" high. This exceptional bottle was recovered from a ploughed field in County Durham, England in the early 1980's.
3: Rare aqua glass Shaft and Globe vessel possibly from about 1670. Height 4".
1: Unusual dark aqua glass vial with tapered body and conical kick-up, distinctive horizontal flared lip. from around 1720-1730; 3.625" high.
2: Exceptionally good condition tall tapered vial, mid to dark olive green colour from circa 1740. 5.5" high.
3: Tall tapered-bodied vial in exceptional condition; slightly earlier in date than number 2, circa 1720 - 1730. Height 5.25".
4: Bulbous dark aqua vial - possibly a section of an hour glass from circa 1690 - 1700. 3.375" tall.
1: Unusual form small vial in dark olive green glass from 17th-18th century. A difficult vessel to date as I have never seen another example like it. 2" high.
2: Rare and unusual small vial/bottle from around 1620 - 1640, in very dark olive green glass. Height 2".
3: Cylindrical bodied vial from circa 1650 - 1670 height 3".
4: Small crudely-formed 17th century vial from circa 1640 with unusual lip form. 2.375" high.
5: Small vial from around 1790 - 1810. Height 2".
1: Darkish green glass with square section body from circa 1810-1820. Height 3.75".
2: Late 18th century aqua glass square-section body vial from circa 1780. Height 4.625".
3: 18th century square section body from circa 1780. Height 4.125".
1: Late 17th century (1680-1700) darkish aqua glass vial with horizontal profile flared lip, slightly tapering body, and tall kick-up. This was an excavated bottle.
2: Late 17th century (1680-1690) aqua glass vial with flared lip and slightly tapering body, in exceptional condition. Height 2.375".
3: Mid 17th century (circa 1650) exceptionally fine vial, height 3.125". It was recovered from a timber-framed Manor House during restoration work.
4: Late 17th century (about 1690-1700) dark aqua green glass, exceptionally fine small vial. Height 2".
1: Late 17th century vial (1680 - 1690) tapering from base to shoulders. The flared lip is almost as wide in diameter as the widest part of the body; exceptional. Height 2.75".
2: Fairly large cylindrical bodied vial in dark aqua green glass, exceptional condition with a deep kick-up, from circa 1730-1740. Height 4.75".
3: Tall tapered vial in pale olive green glass (an unusual colour) from circa 1740-1750. 5.5" high.
4: Cylindrical bodied vial in dark aqua green glass with distinctive kick-up, from circa 1725 - 1730. Height 3.5".
1: Tiny late 17th century vial (circa 1690) in darkish aqua glass. 1.625" tall.
2: Small aqua green glass vial from circa 1760 - 80. Height 2".
3: 18th century cylindrical-bodied vial from circa 1740 - 1750. Flared lip and deep conical kick-up. Height 3.25".
4: 18th century cylindrical-bodied vial circa 1750 - 1760, height 3.5".
5: Small vial in pale olive green glass from circa 1740-ish. Height 2".
6: Small vial in pale aqua glass from circa 1770-1780. Height 1.625".
1: Pale olive green glass vial from circa 1780. 2.75" tall..
2: Cylindrical-bodied vial from circa 1740-1745. Height 3".
3: Cylindrical-bodied vial from circa 1740 - 45. Height 3.375".
4: Pale olive glass vial from circa 1800-1810. Height 3.625".
5: Cylindrical-bodied vial with high conical kick-up from circa 1760. Height 3.75".
If you are looking for examples, click apothecary glass
David W. Barker of Elsecar, South Yorkshire, England has been collecting glass and stoneware bottles since the 1970's. He is a practising artist exhibiting his paintings internationally, and Course Leader in Fine Art Painting at Bretton Hall College, University of Leeds. He trained at the Royal College of Art in London.
Auckland Bottle Works, New Zealand
Author: Angela Bowey (grateful thanks to ACI New Zealand Glass Manufacturers)
Above: Auckland glass workers campaigning against Prohibition, 1925
The first successful bottle works in New Zealand was set up in 1922 by the Australian Glass Manufacturers' Company, at Penrose, near Auckland. For over a hundred years the demand for bottles in New Zealand had been closely related to brewing beer (see Chapter 1). So it was no surprise that the glass workers were opposed to the introduction of "Prohibition" during the 1920's. The picture above shows a horse-drawn omnibus and members of the Auckland Glass Workers' Union exhorting people to vote for "Continuance" (of liquor sales), in May 1925.
Beer was brewed all over New Zealand by the mid-19th century, local breweries re-using bottles from English beer. The shortage of bottles became chronic, and many attempts were made to set up successful bottle and glassworks in New Zealand, all of them failing. Part of the problem was opposition by bottle importers and the pro-British lobby. So when the Australian Glass Manufacturers Company, major exporters of bottles to New Zealand, built their bottle works in Auckland in 1922, they were careful to seek local favour. Before the factory was finished, they were already advertising in New Zealand. They took a stand at the 1921/22 Trade Fair (see picture below) and made a real effort to win over local and British industrialists and opinion leaders to the idea of their bottle works. Their sign at the Trade Fair read:
We will shortly be Manufacturing Similar Ware at PENROSE
where we will Employ a Large Staff and consume thousands of
TONS of LOCAL COKE, COAL & SAND Annually.
For Box Making alone We will use a Large Quantity of N.Z. TIMBER
& for Glass Making we will Export from Britain Soda Ash & Other Chemicals
NEW ZEALAND HAS AS LARGE A POPULATION AS VICTORIA ........
Victoria Employs Directly 1000 MEN in this Industry. Why Not New Zealand?"
Above, Trade Fair stand showing samples of bottles and a "Semi-automatic Bottle Blowing Machine"
This conciliatory approach seems to have worked, because the factory succeeded and to this day supplies almost the entire bottle requirements of New Zealand. They solved another problem, shortage of skilled glass workers in New Zealand, by bringing a contingent of staff from Sydney. The story of glass bottle making in New Zealand is told in more detail in a book called New Zealand Glass (click here for more details).
Above, the opening ceremony of the Auckland Bottle Works at Penrose, 1922
Sources and references for this article:
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